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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram negative bacterium associated with aggressive form of periodontitis, as well as systemic infections, such as endocarditis. It has an extensive genetic diversity and a number of potent virulence factors with capacity to cause imbalance in the host response. These properties of the bacterium contribute to its suitability in clinical and experimental research models aimed to identify important virulence mechanisms, as well as risk factors.

Research in the field of A. actinomycetemcomitans and its associated forms of aggressive periodontitis is particularly relevant in our days, not only from a microbiological, but also an epidemiological perspective.

The current dynamic migrant movement towards Europe may affect the distribution of this species in the continent. Therefore, monitoring of shifts in A. actinomycetemcomitans and the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis within populations may assist in prevention and early diagnosis strategies for the disease.