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Objectives

Objectives

The overall aim of the proposed research is to further understand the link between air pollution levels and chemical composition and to investigate and assess the effects of air pollution on the distribution of related health impacts, socio-economics and welfare in the Nordic countries. In pursuing this aim, the following objectives will be investigated:

1. High spatial resolution emissions: Performing a detailed common Nordic emission inventory Down to 1 km x 1 km resolution, based on emission databases in the individual Nordic countries. Official data available will be used as well as preparation and incorporation of additional spatial disaggregation proxies in order to achieve the high spatial resolution emission inventory needed for the air quality modelling. Different methodologies and proxies used in different countries will be analysed and preferable methodologies recommended. Special attention will be given to sources with large contribution to the total emissions in the Nordic countries, specifically residential wood combustion. The emission inventory will be conducted in WP1 and will be input to WP2.

2. Integrated modelling: Setting up of a state-of-the-art advanced and integrated air pollution model system from hemispheric scale, European scale, and national scale, for calculation and assessment of high resolution (down to 1 km x 1 km resolution) air pollution levels and human exposure, including assessing the contribution related to different emission sectors and regions. This work is carried out in WP2. The results will be hourly values of air pollutants, on a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the Nordic countries over several decades (input to WP3).

3. Health effects of air pollution: Investigate the potential causal impact of individual chemical air pollutants as well as mixtures of air pollutants on health outcomes. In pursuing this aim, we utilize the unique Nordic population-based registers allowing linkage between historical residential address, air pollutants over decades and later health outcomes. By linking the exposure to health outcomes, new exposure-response relationships are determined of health effects for different popultion Groups (e.g. age, education, ethnicity, gender, lifestyle, and working life vs. retirement conditions) related to air pollution for the individual chemical air pollutants. The objective will be conducted in WP3.

4. Assessment and quantification of health impacts: An assessment and quantification of overall negative health outcomes of air pollution in terms of premature deaths, hospital admissions, days of reduced activity, respiratory diseases, mental disorders, etc. on high resolution down to 1 km x 1 km in the Nordic countries for the different popultion groups, using the integrated model system EVA, based on the impact pathway chain. The EVA system will be further developed utilizing the new exposure-response relationships found in WP3 and will be carried out in WP4.

5. Distribution of welfare and challenges for the Nordic welfare systems: Assessment and quantification of socio-economic impacts from air pollution and effects on distribution of welfare in the Nordic countries. This will be related to explaining and reducing inequalities in the distribution of health depending on population group and the challenges these thus imply for the Nordic welfare systems. The objective is to increase insight into the effect of demographic, social, and environmental factors on the distribution of health and well-being. This work will be conducted in WP5.